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Assignment: Adolescents Learning Disabilities

Assignment: Adolescents Learning Disabilities

Assignment: Adolescents Learning Disabilities

Assignment: Adolescents Learning Disabilities

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Academy of Healing Arts Adolescents Learning Disabilities Discussion Response


Design –

This research article used a phenomenological approach as the researchers were interested in the perspective of adolescents with learning disabilities. The researchers wanted to identify how the adolescents felt about their experiences from their own frame of reference (Rosetti & Henderson, 2013). The authors have experience in research from the participants’ perspectives. Assignment: Adolescents Learning DisabilitiesPurpose

Research from the adolescents’ point of view is critical because they are often unhappy with their experience in the school setting, and often feel that their peers cannot relate to them or understand their experiences and challenges. The authors state that this research is important “…from a social justice standpoint” (Rosetti & Henderson, 2013, p. 5). By speaking directly with the students, it is the goal of researchers to get an in-depth view of about everyday life of adolescents with learning disabilities.


The focus of the research was to gather information from the viewpoint of the adolescents who live in a unique culture separate from their peers without learning disabilities. Phenomenological studies typically have are designed to look at typical life experiences and perceptions of the participants.

Method of Data Collection

Potential recruits were told of about the study through an announcement through the Parent Education Network in the San Francisco Bay Area. The recruitment of participants was done through convenience sampling of identified potential recruits. After identifying adolescents, five were randomly selected for the research project. In-depth oral individual interviews were done for each of the research participants. All interviews were recorded for later transcription by a service. Academy of Healing Arts Adolescents Learning Disabilities Discussion Response

Method of Data Analysis

The transcripts from the interviews were analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA). IPA is useful for enabling researchers to better understand the emotional experiences of the participants. For this research study, three raters were used to code the transcript data. The use of multiple raters is designed to “…reduce individual research bias and increase the overall validity of the results…” (Rosetti & Henderson, 2013, p. 7). The reason for IPA use is to identify emergent themes from the experiences of the adolescents with learning disabilities, which for this study were 1) social support; 2) school experience; 3) understanding of LD/ADHD; and 4) self-advocacy (Rosetti & Henderson, 2013). Assignment: Adolescents Learning Disabilities


Ebrahimpour, F., Esmaeili, M., & Varaei, S. (2018). Photovoice: Method of data collection in qualitative research. Nursing Practice Today5(1), 216–218. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford….

Rosetti, C. W. & Henderson, S. J. (2013). Lived Experiences of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities. The Qualitative Report, 18(24), 1-17. Retrieved from https://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol18/iss24/2


Nursing Practice Today Nurs Pract Today. 2018; 5(1):216-218. Editorial Photovoice: Method of data collection in qualitative research Fatemeh Ebrahimpour1, Maryam Esmaeili2,3*, Shokoh Varaei4 1 Department of Pediatric Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 2 Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 3 Department of Critical Care Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 4 Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran In qualitative studies, researchers seek to discover meanings of human data by adoption of naturalistic approaches; hence, data collection methods are particularly important (1). Photovoice is an innovative data collection method which can provide deep and rich information for researchers. Photovoice is a term consisting of two words, photo and voice. It was first introduced as a data collection method for community-based participatory research (CBPR) by Wang and Burris in 1997 (2). According to these researchers, Photovoice is a process in which participants are able to record several issues in their society by cameras and they can play roles as potential facilitators to make a difference in their society. In this process, participants, who are volunteers in their society, have effective participation in sharing their experience and knowledge with researchers and policymakers. In other words, the Photovoice means expressing their life experience through photography (3). photovoice has three main goals: 1) to enable people to record and reflect their community’s strengths and concerns, 2) to promote critical dialogue and knowledge about important issues through large and small group discussion of photographs, and 3) to reach policymakers (3). The main nature of Photovoice is considered as a way to empower individuals to identify individual and social health needs and make changes to improve society where people live (5). However, since people use their cameras to take photos of their daily facts and focus on issues with the highest importance in this process (6), this process is taken into account by researchers of qualitative studies as a data collection method for a deeper understanding of phenomena. Photovoice is applicable in every age group and any context and status of health and disease (2,7). This technique can be used in phenomenological studies, Grounded Theory, Ethnography, and Participatory Action Research (PAR) (2,8,9). In Photovoice method, researchers initially determine target issues or questions, and then select participants who are related to target issue, and voluntarily include them in the research. In the next step, researchers explain them the research objectives and how to use the camera and techniques of photography, observing safety issues and ethics. After taking photos by participants, each photo is discussed and analyzed through interviews or by focused groups. Academy of Healing Arts Adolescents Learning Disabilities Discussion Response.
Therefore, researchers ask people 5 questions about reasons for selection of photos and also their feelings and emotion by SHOWeD method: 1. what do you see in this picture? 2. What is happening in this picture? 3. What connection does it have with our life? 4. Why is this situation created? 5. What can we do for it? After this stage, researchers analyze the content and extract semantic units and codes and themes based on the interviews. Results are then presented for policy makers or other stakeholders in participatory or community-based case studies with the aim to make changes in Please cite this article in press as: Ebrahimpour F, Esmaeili M, Varaei Sh. Photovoice: Method of data collection in qualitative research. Nurs Pract Today. 2018; 5(1):216-218 Photovoice Nurs Pract Today. 2018; 5(1):216-218. target issue; and photos are published in galleries, websites, magazines and papers if necessary (2,10, 11). Photovoice is a method which emphasizes on participants’ direct participation as a co-researcher in the study. Participants take desired photos, and then themes are identified in a collaborative process with researchers. In other words, reflection, thoughts and feelings which describe a photo, are written for it, and then participants discuss their experience in a group and extract common themes through photos and writing reflections (8). Photovoice method has a particular conformity with philosophy and methodology of structuralism or development and construction of meaning through individual experience. In other words, photos display what participants understand, are interested in or worried about. Data of similar photos of analysis stage of qualitative data is discovered through participants’ collaboration by data encoding, and then the formation and interpretation of themes appear. Ethical principles should be established in performing the Photovoice. 1) The individual property and privacy are shown in photos, and thus photos should be protected in this regard. 2) Photos may show images of an illegal relationship or other harmful items, and thus the individual safety should be provided. 3) Selection of photos should be based on participants’ choice and published by their consent. 4) Photos, which are interesting for researchers and not based on the participants’ real experience, may be taken. 5) Participants transfer ownership of photos by signing the consent form. 6) Participants have the right to choose (2). In the health care system, qualitative studies aim to conduct deep assessment of complex phenomena which nurses are faced. It is very important to reach perceptions, live experience and see the world from participants’ perspective. In the recent two decades, Photovoice is utilized in qualitative studies on the health especially in nursing research as a way to explore individual experience of disease or other phenomena (12). Assignment: Adolescents Learning Disabilities
Photovoice is a valuable method which helps qualitative researchers as a third eye to observe hidden parts of individual experience, desires, history, culture, problems and needs. Assignment: Adolescents Learning Disabilities. Therefore, use of multiple sources in data collection can help to increase data richness in qualitative studies. Therefore, researchers are suggested using Photovoice method based on the research questions in addition to interview as the most common method of qualitative data collection. References 1. Polit D, Beck C. Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice. 10th. 2017. Wolters Kluwer. 2. Evans-Agnew RA, Rosemberg MA.Questioning Photovoice Research: Whose Voice? Qual Health Res. 2016, 26(8):1019-30. 3. Wang C, Burris MA. Photovoice: concept, methodology, and use for participatory needs assessment. Health Educ Behav. 1997, 24(3):369-87. 4. Teti M, Pichon L, Kabel A, Farnan R, Binson D. Taking pictures to take control: Photovoice as a tool to facilitate empowerment among poor and racial/ethnic minority women with HIV. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2013, 24(6):539-5. 5. Werremeyer A, Skoy E, Aalgaard Kelly G. Use of Photovoice to Understand the Experience of Taking Psychotropic Medications. Qualitative Health Research. 2017, 27 (18). 6. Jason LA, Glenwick DS. Handbook of Methodological Approaches to Communitybased Research. Oxford university press. 2016. New York. 7. Faucher MA, Garner SL. A method comparison of photovoice and content analysis: research examining challenges and supports of family caregivers. Applied Nursing Research. 2015, 28, 262–267. 8. Martin N, Garcia AC, Leipert B. Photovoice and its potential use in nutrition and. dietetic research. 2010, 71(2): 93-97. 9. Hergenrather KC, Rhodes SD, Cowan CA, Bardhoshi G, Pula S. Photovoice as Community-Based Participatory Research: A 217 Photovoice Nurs Pract Today. 2018; 5(1):216-218. Qualitative Review. American journal of health behavior. 2009;33(6):686-698. 10. Evans-Agnew RA, Boutain DM, Rosemberg MS. Advancing Nursing Research in the Visual Era: Reenvisioning the Photovoice Process Across Phenomenological, Grounded Theory, and 218 Critical Theory Methodologies. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2017, 40(1): 1-15. 11. Sanon MA, Robin A. Evans-Agnew RA, Boutain DM. An exploration of social justice intent in photovoice research studies from2008 to 2013. Nursing Inquiry 2014; 21(3): 212–226. Copyright of Nursing Practice Today is the property of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. …
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