Choose any disaster incident type listed in the Comprehensive Planning Guide
Haddon Matrix Assignment
Haddon Matrix Assignment
Read the article on the Haddon matrix application (Haddon Matrix Article.pdf ) to public health emergencies in emergency management. The Haddon matrix was designed in the 1960s as a model to understand injury prevention and control. It examines agent, host and environment in three phases, pre-event, event and post-event.
Choose any disaster incident type listed in the Comprehensive Planning Guide (CPG-201 v 2) or the THIRA document and use your skills with data management software programs (Microsoft Excel) to create a matrix that examines the interaction of influencing factors and phase. Don’t forget to include factors that would ‘protect’ or ‘strengthen’ the host to resist damage/injury. This activity is consistent with the first step of the THIRA process!
You may not use any of the examples given in the assigned article. Pay specific attention to attributes of the host found in the assigned reading in Perry and Lindell which may contribute to why emergency planning is difficult or made more difficult. You may choose to write about disaster incidents in other countries but make sure to provide detail about what particular characteristics or societal values are different or unique based on your choice. If you choose to use such an incident, be certain to cite, using APA format, the reports you used to understand that event.
I do not expect you to provide the depth and breadth of answer found on page 563 (public health Haddon matrix) but I do expect more information than what is presented in the original matrix example which is found on page 562. Haddon Matrix Assignment
And again, while it is very valuable to look at published matrices, you must create one of your own for the event you select.
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Inj Prev 1998;4:302-307 doi:10.1136/ip.4.4.302 Using the Haddon matrix: introducing the third dimension Carol W Runyan + Author Affiliations University of North Carolina, Injury Prevention Research Center and Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public Health Correspondence to: Dr Carol Runyan, Director, UNC Injury Prevention Research Center, CB 7505 Chase Hall, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599–7505, USA. William Haddon Jr developed his conceptual model, the Haddon matrix, more than two decades ago applying basic principles of public health to the problem of traffic safety.1, 2 Since that time, the matrix has been used as a tool to assist in developing ideas for preventing injuries of many types. As such, it provides a compelling framework for understanding the origins of injury problems and for identifying multiple countermeasures to address those problems. However, users then must decide for themselves among the alternatives. This paper adds a third dimension to the matrix to facilitate its use for making decisions about which countermeasures to apply. Haddon’s matrix The matrix of four columns and three rows combines public health concepts of host-agentenvironment as targets of change with the concepts of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.3, 4 More specifically, the factors defined by the columns in the matrix refer to the interacting factors that contribute to the injury process (see tables 1 and 2). The host column refers to the person at risk of injury. The agent of injury is energy (for example mechanical, thermal, electrical) that is transmitted to the host through a vehicle (inanimate object) or vector (person or other animal). Physical environments include all the characteristics of the setting in which the injury event takes place (for example a roadway, building, playground, or sports arena). Social and legal norms and practices in the culture are referred to as the social environment. Examples include norms about child discipline or alcohol consumption or policies about licensing drivers or sales of firearms. View this table: In this window In a new window Table 1 Haddon matrix applied to the problem of residential fires caused by cigarettes igniting upholstered furniture View this table: In this window In a new window Table 2 Haddon matrix applied to the problem of school violence by firearms The phases in Haddon’s initial configuration referred to rows in the matrix. These are the phases at which change would have its effect—pre-crash, crash, or post-crash. These have been broadened beyond the motor vehicle arena to encompass other injury problems by using the terms “pre-event,” “event” and “post-event”. Thus, by identifying interventions that fit within each cell of the matrix one can generate a list of strategies for addressing a variety of injury or other public health problems. How to use the Haddon matrix As indicated in table 3, the first step in planning, whether using the matrix or any other technique, is to identify clearly the problem to be addressed using appropriate data from the community to assess need. Before using the matrix to derive potential interventions, it is necessary to identify the injury issue to be addressed; for example, falls from playground equipment, bicycle crashes, bathtub drownings, child physical abuse, or residential fires. Second, one needs to define each row and column of the matrix. For example, as in table 1, the host is the child in the home experiencing the fire. The vehicles in this example are the cigarettes, matches, or flammable upholstery fabrics. The home and its immediate environs, including adjoining structures (for example a garage) represents the physical environment. The social environment refers to the social norms, policies, and procedures that govern such practices as how buildings are constructed, installation of smoke detectors, the use of space heaters, and the use of alcohol by residents. View this table: In this window In a new window Table 3 Steps in using the three dimensional Haddon matrix Most injuries are the result of a sequence of events representing a continuum of activity, rather than a discrete moment in time defined as the event. Consequently, it is critical that the rows of the matrix also be defined carefully. In most situations, the event could be defined in a variety of ways depending on one’s perspective. In the residential fire and school violence examples provided in tables 1 and 2, the event might be defined as the moment the cigarette is dropped in a wastebasket, or the point at which the sofa ignites or when the room is engulfed in flames, or when the whole house is on fire, or when the child is overcome by carbon monoxide. Likewise, in the case of school violence, the event might be the time the teenager takes out the firearm from his or her backpack, the moment he or she points it at a crowd on the playground or the point in time when it is fired, or when it strikes another individual.5 The choice is arbitrary, but is important so as to anchor one’s thinking about what comes before and after the event. Once both dimensions of the matrix have been carefully defined, individual or group brainstorming is useful to generate ideas about interventions in each of the cells. If participants are from different disciplines, they will bring different perspectives to the problem and to solutions, enriching the overall pool of ideas. By applying the principles of brainstorming in which all ideas are recorded without critical comment before discussion, the process can yield a wide variety of options. In this process it is frequently tempting, but incorrect, to identify the phase of the strategy in terms of when the strategy was put into place. For example, the smoke detector or sprinkler system was installed as the house was being constructed. However, it has its effect at the time of the event (that is when the smoke filled the room and the detector sounded). Consequently, the smoke detector is properly classified as an event phase strategy. A pre-event strategy would be redesigning cigarettes so they self extinguish before having a chance to ignite upholstery. When filling in the cells of the matrix, a sentence completion exercise can be helpful. That is, one might state: “…… (idea) is an intervention to affect a change in …… (factor), having its effect at the time of …… (phase).” Examples of completed matrices for residential fires and school violence appear in tables 1 and 2 respectively. For many injury problems, particularly those involving repeat occurrences, strategies identified in the post-event phase may actually be effective as pre-event strategies for a subsequent event. For example, efforts to deal with a violent offender are often directed at avoiding a future violent offense. Consequently, the strategy is both post-event in the context of one event and may be pre-event in the context of preventing the occurrence of future events. Similarly, efforts to punish and rehabilitate a drunk driver who has had a crash (a post-event strategy) serves as a pre-event strategy for future potential incidents. Expanding the matrix for decision making Once alternative intervention strategies are identified, program planners and decision makers need to choose among the strategies. By applying principles of policy analysis,6–8 this process can become systematized, permitting concrete articulation of those values that guide the decision process. Policy analysis typically involves a series of steps including: problem identification, identification of alternative policy options, and identification of values to be assessed relative to each option. Then the analyst uses a process by which each option is assessed according to the extent to which it adheres to the values identified as important.