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Describe and explain two areas you need to further develop to address or prevent vicarious trauma

Describe and explain two areas you need to further develop to address or prevent vicarious trauma

Describe and explain two areas you need to further develop to address or prevent vicarious trauma
Assignment: Risk for Vicarious Trauma
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RE: SOCW6333 – Assignment: Your Risk for Vicarious Trauma
SOCW 6333 – Assignment: Your Risk for Vicarious Trauma

Counselors who listen to a client or student sharing a story of abuse often remain calm and nonreactive as part of the counseling process (Izzo & Miller, 2009). However, maintaining such controlled empathy takes tremendous mental and emotional effort in order for counselors to absorb a traumatic story while knowing they must respond therapeutically. This effort can become mentally and emotionally exhausting. Counselors and other trauma-response helping professionals must be cognizant of their potential risk of developing vicarious trauma and be capable of assessing their own symptoms.

For this SOCW 6333 – Assignment: Your Risk for Vicarious Trauma Assignment you take the Professional Quality of Life Scale (Stamm, 2010, p. 26), a brief assessment instrument developed to promote self-awareness of vicarious trauma. It measures compassion satisfaction, which is the pleasure you derive from your profession, risks for burnout, and your exposure to extremely stressful events. Together, these three components help determine your risk for developing vicarious trauma and the impact of controlled empathy.

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Assignment (2–3 pages):

Describe your results of the ProQOL.
Describe and explain two areas you need to further develop to address or prevent vicarious trauma and explain why you selected each.
Based upon the current literature, justify two strategies you would use to develop those areas.
Explain how your use of controlled empathy might influence the development of vicarious trauma and how this might impact the treatment process.
Be specific and use examples to illustrate your points.
Support your Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation.

References

Stamm, B. H. (2010). The concise ProQOL manual (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://proqol.org/uploads/ProQOL_2ndEd_12-2010.pdf

Note: ProQOL version 5 can be found on page 26 of the manual

2010 The Concise ProQOL Manual Beth Hudnall Stamm, PhD Proqol.org BethHudnallStamm.com and CompassionSatisfactionAndCompassionFatigue.com 2 THE CONCISE MANUAL FOR THE PROFESSIONAL QUALITY OF LIFE SCALE THE ProQOL 3 The Concise ProQOL Manual, 2nd Edition Reference Stamm, B.H. (2010). The Concise ProQOL Manual, 2nd Ed. Pocatello, ID: ProQOL.org. Copyright  Beth Hudnall Stamm. All rights reserved. 12345679890 Published The ProQOL.org, P.O. Box 4362. Pocatello, ID 83205-4362 Cover design by Beth Hudnall Stamm Images copyright 2008 Henry E. Stamm, IV Printed in Trebuchert MS font for the headers and 11 point Calibri font for the body. ISSN to be applied for Reference Stamm, B.H. (2010). The Concise ProQOL Manual. Pocatello, ID: ProQOL.org. Acknowledgements I here provide acknowledgements for their faithful contributions to the development of the ProQOL go to Joseph M. Rudolph, Edward M. Varra, Kelly Davis, Debra Larsen, Craig Higson‐Smith, Amy C. Hudnall, Henry E. Stamm, and to all those from around the world who contributed their raw data to the databank. I am forever indebted to Charles F. Figley who originated the scale, and in 1996, 4 handed the scale off to me saying “I put a semicolon there; you take it and put a period at the end of the sentence.” No one could have wished for a better mentor, colleague, and friend. This material may be freely copied as long as (a) author is credited, (b) no changes are made, & (c) it is not sold except for in agreement specifically with the author. TABLE OF CONTENTS The ProQOL………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 Section 1: Compassion Satisfaction and Compassion Fatigue ………………………………………………………………….. 8 Figure 1: Diagram of Professional Quality of Life ……………………………………………….. 8 Background ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8 Figure 2: Theoretical path analysis …………………………………………………………………. 10 Section 2: Scale Definitions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12 Compassion Satisfaction ……………………………………………………………………………….. 12 Compassion Fatigue……………………………………………………………………………………… 12 Section 3: Scale Properties ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..13 Scale Distribution ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13 Table 1: ProQOL Moments ……………………………………………………………………………. 13 Reliability……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13 Validity 13 Section 4: Administration of the ProQOL ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 14 Individual Administration ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14 Group Administration ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15 Research Administration ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15 Section 5: Proqol scoring …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..15 Calculating the Scores on The proqol ………………………………………………………………………………………. 15 Scale Definitions and Scores …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17 Cut Scores ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18 Table 2: Cut Scores for the ProQOL ………………………………………………………………… 18 Section 6: Interpreting the ProQOL ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18 The ProQOL Is Not Diagnostic …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18 5 The Importance of Knowing More than Just the ProQOL Scores ………………………………………………….. 19 Scores Across Demographic Categories ……………………………………………………………………………………. 19 Table 3: Gender ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19 Table 4: Age Group ……………………………………………………………………………………… 20 Table 4: Race ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20 Table 5: Income Group ………………………………………………………………………………… 20 Table 6: Years at Current Employer ……………………………………………………………….. 20 Table 7: Years in Field ………………………………………………………………………………….. 21 Interpreting Individual Scales ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21 Compassion Satisfaction ………………………………………………………………………………. 21 Compassion Fatigue …………………………………………………………………………………….. 21 Interpreting Scale Scores in Combination …………………………………………………………………………………. 22 High Compassion Satisfaction, Moderate to Low Burnout and Secondary Traumatic Stress………………………………………………………………………….. 22 High Burnout, Moderate to Low Compassion Satisfaction and Secondary Traumatic Stress………………………………………………………………………….. 22 High Secondary Traumatic Stress with Low Burnout and Low Compassion Satisfaction ………………………………………………………………………………. 22 High Secondary Traumatic Stress and High Compassion Satisfaction with Low Burnout ………………………………………………………………………. 23 High Secondary Traumatic Stress and High Burnout with Low Compassion Satisfaction ………………………………………………………………………………. 23 Interpreting the ProQOL at a Group Level ………………………………………………………. 23 Section 7: Using the ProQOL for Decision Making ……………………………………………………………………………….. 24 Changing the Person‐Event Interaction ……………………………………………………………………………………. 24 Monitoring Change Across Time ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 25 Section 8: The ProQOL Test and Handout ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26 Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL) ………………………………………….. Error! Bookmark not defined. ProQOL Self Scoring Worksheet ………………………………………………………. Error! Bookmark not defined. Scoring …………………………………………………………………………………………………… Error! Bookmark not defined. 6 Your Scores on The ProQOL: Professional Quality Of Life Scale …………… Error! Bookmark not defined. SECTION 9: Converting from the ProQOL IV to the ProQOL 5 ………………………………………………………………… 31 Table for Determining ProQOL t‐Score from Raw Scores …………………………………… 31 SECTION 10: Bibliography ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….35 SECTION 11: Frequently Asked Questions …………………………………………………………………………………………… 73 About the Author……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..77 7 SECTION 1: COMPASSION SATISFACTION AND COMPASSION FATIGUE Professional quality of life is the quality one feels n relation to their work as a helper. Both the positive and negative aspects of doing one’s job influence ones professional quality of life. People who work in helping professions may respond to individual, community, national, and even international crises. Helpers can be found in the health care professionals, social service workers, teachers, attorneys, police officers, firefighters, clergy, airline and other transportation staff, disaster site clean‐up crews, and others who offer assistance at the time of the event or later. Professional quality of life incorporates two aspects, the positive (Compassion Satisfaction) and the negative (Compassion Fatigue). Compassion fatigue breaks into two parts. The first part concerns things such like exhaustion, frustration, anger and depression typical of burnout. Secondary Traumatic Stress is a negative feeling driven by fear and work‐related trauma. Some trauma at work can be direct (primary) trauma. In other cases, work‐related trauma be a combination of both primary and secondary trauma. FIGURE 1: DIAGRAM OF PROFESSIONAL QUALITY OF LIFE Professional Quality of Life Compassion Satisfaction Compassion Fatigue Burnout Secondary Trauma BACKGROUND Professional quality of life for those providing care has been a topic of growing interest over the past twenty years. Research has that shown those who help people that have been exposed to traumatic stressors are at risk for developing negative symptoms associated with burnout, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. In this body of literature, typically known as secondary traumatization or vicarious traumatization, the positive feelings about people’s ability to help are known as Compassion Satisfaction (CS). The negative, secondary outcomes have variously been identified as burnout, countertransference, Compassion Fatigue (CF) and Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS), and Vicarious Traumatization (VT). While the incidence of developing problems associated with the negative aspects of providing care seems to be low, they are serious and can affect an individual, their family and close others, the care they provide, and their organizations. The positive aspects of helping can be viewed as altruism; feeling good that you can do something to help. The negative effects of providing care are aggravated by the severity of the traumatic material to which the helper is exposed, such as direct contact with victims, particularly when the exposure is of a grotesque and graphic nature. The outcomes may include burnout, depression, increased use of substances, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. 8 In 1995, three books introduced the concepts of the negative effects on caregivers who provide care to those who have been traumatized.1 2 3 The terminology was at that time, and continues to be, a taxonomical conundrum. However, since that time, Figley, Stamm, and Pearlman together have produced over 50 additional scientific writings on the topic. Casting a broad net across the topic, over 500 papers, books and articles have been written, including nearly 200 peer‐reviewed papers, 130 dissertations along with various unpublished studies. Among which there are and a hundred research papers using a type of measurement of the negative effects of secondary exposure to traumatic stress. Research has been conducted across multiple cultures worldwide, and across multiple types of traumatic event exposures. As noted above, there are issues associated with the various terms used to describe negative effects. There are three accepted terms: compassion fatigue, secondary traumatic stress, and vicarious trauma. There do seem to be nuances between the terms but there is no delineation between them sufficient to say that they are truly different. There have been some papers that have tried to ferret out the specific differences between the names and the constructs.4 These papers have been largely unsuccessful in identifying real differences between the concepts as presented under each name. The three terms are used often, even in writing that combines Figley (compassion fatigue), Stamm (secondary traumatic stress) and Pearlman (vicarious traumatization). The various names represent three converging lines of evidence that produced three different construct names. As the topic has matured, reconfiguration of the terms seems timely. In general, looking beyond issues of taxonomy, there has been little negative critique of the topic as a whole. Nonetheless, there are articles that question in its entirety the concept of secondary negative effects due to work with people who have been traumatized.56 Both articles point to a lack of research, perhaps allowable in some part given the nascent nature of the construct, particularly in the Arvay paper, which was published in 2001. Four years later, at the core of Kadambi & Ennis’ (2005) suggestion to re‐examine the credibility of the topic are measurement issues, that is, refined definitions of the characteristics and reliable and valid measures of the constructs. These critiques seem well earned at the point that they were written. Whether in response to the critiques, or as natural evolution, over half of the research articles that exist were written after these critiques reviews were conducted. In addition, as the authors pointed out, there were varied means of assessing the negative effects. Based on experience and some research, organizational prevention programs are believed to help maximize helpers’ well‐being (CS) and reduce the risks for developing compassion fatigue and secondary trauma. At a minimum, organizational programs show the worker that they have formally addressed the potential for the work to affect the worker. Good programs do not identify to other workers or supervisors, specific information about the worker’s professional quality of life unless the information is shared by the worker. In some cases, 1 Figley, C. R. (Ed.) (1995). Compassion fatigue: Coping with secondary traumatic stress disorder in those who treat the traumatized. New York: Brunner/Mazel. Pearlman, L. A., & Saakvitne, K. W. (1995). Trauma and the therapist: Countertransference and vicarious traumatization in psychotherapy with incest survivorsNew York: Norton. 3 Stamm, B. H. (.Ed). (1995). Secondary traumatic stress: Self‐care issues for clinicians, researchers, and educators. Maryland: Sidran Press: Lutherville. 4 cf Baird, K., & Kracen, A. C. (2006). Vicarious traumatization and secondary traumatic stress: A research synthesis. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 19(2), 181‐188. 5 Kadambi, M. A., & Ennis, L. (2004). Reconsidering vicarious trauma: A review of the literature and its’ limitations. Journal of Trauma Practice, 3(2), 1‐21. 6 Arvay, M. J. (2001). Secondary traumatic stress among trauma counsellors: What does the research say? International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 23(4), 283‐293. 2 9 supervisors address performance issues that they believe may be negative aspects of helping but in those cases, the principals of organizational human resources suggest that these performance issues should be handled as such, not as a flaw in the character of the employee, but a performance issue. The overall concept of professional quality of life is complex because it is associated with characteristics of the work environment (organizational and task‐wise), the individual’s personal characteristics and the individual’s exposure to primary and secondary trauma in the work setting. This complexity applies to paid workers (e.g. medical personnel) and volunteers (e.g. Red Cross disaster responders). The diagram below helps illustrate the elements of Professional Quality of Life. In the center of the diagram are compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue. Compassion Satisfaction is the positive aspects of helping others and Compassion Satisfaction are the negative one. As can be seen, one work environment, client (or the person helped) environment and the person’s environment all have a roll to play. For example, a poor work environment may contribute to Compassion Fatigue. At the same time, a person could feel compassion satisfaction that they could help others despite that poor work environment. Compassion Fatigue contains two very different aspects. Both have the characteristic of being negative. However, work‐related trauma has a distinctive aspect of fear associated with it. While it is more rare than overall feelings of what we can call burnout, it is very powerful in its effect on a person. When both burnout and trauma are present in a person’s life their life can be very difficult indeed. The diagram below shows a theoretical path analysis of positive and negative outcomes of helping those who have experienced traumatic stress. FIGURE 2: THEORETICAL PATH ANALYSIS 10 11 Four scales emerged in the early research. Two of them (the Impact of Event Scale and the Traumatic Stress Institute Belief Scale) were not specific to secondary exposure. They were used equally for people who were the direct victims of trauma as well as for those who were secondarily exposed in their role as helpers.7 8 Two measures emerged as specific measures for secondary exposure. The Compassion Fatigue Test in its various versions 9 10 11 12 and the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale.13 The Professional Quality of Life Scale, known as the ProQOL, is the most commonly used measure of the positive and negative effects of working with people who have experienced extremely stressful events. Of the 100 papers in the PILOTS database (the Published Literature in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder), 46 used a version of the ProQOL. The measure was originally called the Compassion Fatigue Self Test and developed by Charles Figley in the late 1980s Stamm and Figley began collaborating in 1988. In 1993, Stamm added the concept of compassion satisfaction and the name of the measure changed to the Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Test, of which there were several versions. These versions in the early 1990s were Figley and Stamm, then Stamm and Figley. Through a positive joint agreement between Figley and Stamm the measure shifted entirely to Stamm in the late 1990s and was renamed the Professional Quality of Life Scale. The ProQOL, originally developed in English, is translated into Finnish, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Spanish, Croat. European Portuguese and Russian translations are in process. SECTION 2: SCALE DEFINITIONS COMPASSION SATISFACTION Compassion satisfaction is about the pleasure you derive from being able to do your work well. For example, you may feel like it is a pleasure to help other …

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