Literature Synthesis (Previous work).
July 12, 2022
Obesity is a chronic condition linked to multiple public health concerns causing higher mortality and morbidity rates (WHO, 2021). Evidence-based studies by several experts have recently revealed that diet, lifestyle changes, and physical activity are practical body weight management approaches that can significantly impact patients’ health outcomes (Bray & Ryan, 2020; Brickwood et al., 2019; Følling et al., 2021).
In overweight adult patients in a primary care clinic, what is the impact of implementing the American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle recommendations, compared to standard care, on body weight in 8-10 weeks?
The literature search focused on key concepts related to obesity complications, diet, lifestyle changes, physical activity intervention using Fitbit activity trackers, and physical activity benefice for patients. These major topic areas were obesity self-management, obesity management and care in primary care, and the standards of care for obesity.
Keywords and Search Terms
Physical activity intervention using Fitbit activity trackers
Obesity AND Diet and Lifestyle recommendations
Obesity care management AND Obesity complications
Body weight reduction AND Diet and Lifestyle recommendations
Physical activity intervention using Fitbit activity trackers AND obesity self-management
Diet and Lifestyle recommendations AND primary care
Methodology of Search
Research studies done during the previous 5-6 years were included in the search criteria. Chamberlain Library, PubMed, Google Scholar, and CINHAL were among the databases searched. Initial searches yielded over 25000 articles, of which 47 were chosen and examined because they fit the project’s theme and supplied data to support the practice problem. The first 47 papers were filtered down to a group of 12 studies that were the most relevant to the specific PICOT query. These 12 papers were studied in further detail and then appraised using the Johns Hopkins Evidence Appraisal table.
Twelve papers were chosen for their relation to the areas listed by the PICOT question. All articles selected were highly scored based on the search keywords and Boolean keyword searches. Multiple database searches were conducted using similar, if not identical, search phrases, and the final list was amalgamated.
Review of the Literature
Based on a review of the literature, diet, lifestyle changes, physical activities, and activity trackers impact weight loss outcomes (Bray & Ryan, 2020; Brickwood et al., 2019; Følling et al., 2021). Researchers note that physical activities have short-term impacts; they emphasize the need for individualized programs tailored to individual needs for better outcomes and state that wearable trackers can enhance the effects of physical activities and help sustain the change, making it more effective (Brickwood et al., 2019; Følling et al., 2021).
The quantity of weight lost varies significantly across all weight loss methods, including drugs and surgery. According to research by Bray and Ryan, 2020, around 5% of weight reduction may be linked to lifestyle changes, and sustainable lifestyle modifications are more successful than unsustainable ones. Research reveals that lifestyle changes contribute significantly to weight loss, and it is more effective when accompanied by other weight-reduction programs like activity monitors/trackers that determine the effectiveness of the change by either strengthening or undermining the ability of the patient to change (Bray & Ryan, 2020; Følling et al., 2021). Weight-reduction programs for patients with obesity are more effective when combined healthy diet, lifestyle changes, and physical activities.
Bray, G. A., & Ryan, D. H. (2021). Evidence-based weight-loss interventions: Individualized treatment options to maximize patient outcomes. Diabetes, obesity & metabolism, 23 Suppl 1, 50–62. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.14200Links to an external site.
Brickwood, K. J., Watson, G., O’Brien, J., & Williams, A. D. (2019). Consumer-Based Wearable Activity Trackers Increase Physical Activity Participation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 7(4), e11819. https://doi.org/10.2196/11819Links to an external site.
Følling, I. S., Oldervoll, L. M., Hilmarsen, C., & Ersfjord, E. (2021). A qualitative study explores the use of activity monitors for patients with obesity during weight-loss treatment. BMC sports science, medicine & rehabilitation, 13(1), 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-021-00253-9Links to an external site.
Obesity. (2021, June 9). WHO | World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/facts-in-pictures/detail/6-facts-on-obesityLinks to an external site.
Comment from the professor
This is a very good Intro and Search Methodology! For your Review of the Literature section, do you have a few more studies to synthesize so that there are at least 2 themes for you to discuss in 2 different paragraphs?
For example, are you able to initially focus simply on weight loss and lifestyle modifications in general and these types of study outcomes in your first paragraph? Then, for your second paragraph, you could describe how another group of studies where trackers were used revealed even more favorable results for weight loss, and what those results were in % weight loss, e.g.? How were these tracker studies’ results better than more basic weight loss studies?
I would suggest teasing these differences out a bit more so that you have 2 well-developed paragraphs based on these 2 different themes. You may need to delve into your studies further, and/or find a few studies that evaluated weight loss in general through healthy lifestyle modifications.
Also, you make a statement about the following study: “According to research by Bray and Ryan, 2020, around 5% of weight reduction may be linked to lifestyle changes…”. If this is the case, what do they attribute the other 95% of their participants’ weight loss to for their study? Were they on medication, or was this one of the “tracker” studies? Or something else? It will be fascinating to learn more about your topic, as weight loss is such a huge challenge for many folks across the U.S. and globally!
Keep working on this and reflecting on your studies, and perhaps locate a few more general weight loss studies if you need to, to be able to compare to the “tracker” studies and their results 🙂
Hope this is helpful!