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Georgia State University Adolescents and HIV STD Prevention Presentation

Georgia State University Adolescents and HIV STD Prevention Presentation

Georgia State University Adolescents and HIV STD Prevention Presentation

Georgia State University Adolescents and HIV STD Prevention Presentation

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1 Adolescents and HIV/STD Prevention Khalia Roberts-Harris Georgia State University Health Disparities November 17, 2020 2 Adolescents and HIV/STD prevention Introduction Adolescence is a phase that is characterized by physical growth and development that is accompanied by sexual maturation. This phase is believed to begin at the age of 10 to the age of 19, where the individuals are engaged in intimate relationships due to the advancing sexual maturation. Thus, Adolescents and HIV/STD prevention is a matter that requires extra consideration compared to adult AIDS. At the adolescent stage, the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS is higher than other age brackets. Programs to mitigate the spread of the virus is vital to reduce the number of deaths that result from HIV/STDs. Policies to have been put in place to minimize the spread of this virus among the adolescent group. This paper will focus on evaluating a policy and the practice implications of this issue, social or economic policies, and programs that are believed to improve adolescents’ health. Evaluation of the impacts will also be discussed in this paper. Adolescents are sexually more active, leading to the spread of HIV/AIDS among them rapidly, and therefore, prevention of the spread should be prioritized. Adolescent Risk of HIV/STDs and Implications for Programs Young people aged between 14 and 24 are at higher risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, and the majority of newly reported cases are comprised of them. The majority of the people who are living with these diseases contracted when they were young. This research has led to school and community programs’ development to minimize adolescent sexual risk-taking behaviors (Widman et al., 2016). There are programs that have been successful while others have failed in some way. Prevention of the spread of HIV/AIDS among adolescents revolves around reducing their sexual risk-taking behaviors. Therefore, the 3 programs that have developed and recommended to be applied worldwide need to campaign for and evaluated periodically to determine their impacts. In many countries, most of the STDs and unplanned marriages occur among young people in the adolescent stage. According to research, adolescents begin having sexual intercourse with multiple people before marriage. This has facilitated the spread of STD and HIV in the countries. Georgia State University Adolescents and HIV STD Prevention Presentation

In many countries, young people begin engaging in sexual behaviors at the age of 15. Forty percent of the students in grades 9-12 are believed to have ever had sexual intercourse (Widman et al., 2016). Among these, sixty-one percent had it before graduating from high school. However, having sexual intercourse with multiple partners in the United States has reduced because of having sexual partners within social networks. The networks may be defined in terms of ethnicity, class, or geographical locations. The networks may not physically connect the partners, which may reduce the spread of STDs in particular social networks. Use of Condoms The use of condoms is recognized globally as an acceptable form of contraception for preventing transmission of the STDs. Most of the adolescents are believed to be using condoms in sexual intercourse. However, the use of condoms varies with age, gender, ethnicity, and involvement in risky behaviors. The use of condoms was developed as a policy in many countries to reduce HIV and other STDs transmission rates (Barr et al., 2018). Most of the new cases of infections become infected by others through sexual intercourse. This occurs where individuals get engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse. The protection, in this case, may refer to the use of condom contraceptives. Therefore, having unprotected sex with people who are at risk of social networks increases the risk of contracting STDs in adolescents. The risk 4 behaviors also include the sharing of sharp objects such as needles that are used in injecting drugs. Educational Programs The parts discussed above have crucial implications for the educational programs. Effective educational programs based on HIV and STDs should be available for young people. In addition to this, special education should be offered to adolescents who are at higher risk of getting infected (Barr et al., 2018). The programs should focus on the dangers of engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse. Also, the programs should address the risks of sharing drug needles. There are various venues where awareness can be made to the young people. Age-appropriate services are proved to be more effective than material provisions such as condoms aimed at preventing transmission of the pandemic among the youth. These services include targeted counseling with the aim of encouraging behavior change. This counseling is more effective than condoms because young people are equipped with knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Therefore, counseling should be included in programs of various gatherings such as schools and churches where young people can be found. Georgia State University Adolescents and HIV STD Prevention Presentation

The power that adults and guardians have over young people should also be utilized in fighting the spread of HIV/AIDS. These stakeholders, including parents, should be engaged to help in preventing HIV in young people. They are engaged and educated on how to handle young people when they reach the adolescent stage. Health providers and the entire community should also be part of this education aimed at HIV prevention among the youth. Schools are engaged in HIV and STDs prevention in the youth. Most young people are found in schools, and there is an excellent venue to meet them. The schools are in a position of 5 providing detailed education to young people concerning the disease. Thus, one of the programs has been to ensure there is equality in accessing schools by both girls and boys and also to keep them in schools (Tolou-Shams et al., 2017). Teachers should be educated on how to talk about sex to young students and pupils in the schools. Also, programs have been formed which engage young people in HIV prevention among the young. This is because they make good peer educators, and they help in designing services related to HIV services and programs. These young people can be engaged by the use of technology and social media, where knowledge is easily shared with them. The programs involving peer educators have been designed and developed for youths who live with HIV/AIDS. The programs help them in getting mentors, becoming mentors, and advocating for the needs of the young people in the community. Initiatives such as ACT! 2030 are actions that have been designed to inspire the youth in the response and prevention of HIV transmission. These initiatives advance the technology of young people across the world. Transitions from adolescence to adulthood should be programmed well in a manner that offers knowledge and understanding to the transiting youth. Families should take part in educating their children when they reach the stage of adulthood. Young people transiting from schools should be equipped with enough knowledge to help them prevail over the challenging world. This makes the youth busy, preventing them from indulging in risk-behaviors by being able to work for themselves and independently (Barr et al., 2018). Therefore, enabling environments are created for graduating young people to allow them to participate in the workforce, thus preventing HIV transmission. Working in poorly paid jobs leads to an economic vulnerability that makes the young people give up and engage themselves in sexselling. Therefore, proper transition programs help curb these problems that push the young to 6 get into risky behaviors. HIV/AIDS has roots in social issues such as inequity and discrimination, poverty, and social unrest. Thus, changing or addressing these issues is a significant milestone in HIV prevention in youths (Tolou-Shams et al., 2017). Economic challenges force the young to join sex workers at higher risk of contracting HIV/AIDS and other STDs (Barr et al., 2018). Georgia State University Adolescents and HIV STD Prevention Presentation

These workers engage in sex with multiple people. This makes the risk to be more in female sex workers. Therefore, if young people are provided with good economic activities when they graduate, the number of cases can go down. Barriers to Health Policies and Programs Most of the young people do not access sexual education before becoming sexually active. This makes them more likely to make informed decisions concerning sexuality and approach relationships irresponsibly. The opportunities for obtaining sex education by young people are limited in some countries (Tolou-Shams et al., 2017). The opportunities include youth clubs, which are small and localized, meaning their impact is limited. The young people are also reluctant to acknowledge the dangers that are likely to face when they engage in irresponsible sexual intercourse. Some health service is unappealing to adolescents and can scare the youth from receiving knowledge about sex. Some reports reveal that some health workers are unfriendly to young people and have negative attitudes towards them. This happens to youths who are having sex under the national age consent. The challenges that occur in prevention interventions among the youth is support that they need. This happens where schools, where the young people spend most of their time, have not adequate support programs for those living with STDs. The lack of support leads to psychological and emotional negative impacts. Therefore, this challenge should be solved by installing proper counseling lessons for 7 the students before they mature sexually. Georgia State University Adolescents and HIV STD Prevention Presentation

This can help mature responsibly without indulging themselves in risky sexual behaviours. Conclusion Global targets and goals should synthesize evidence base for HIV/AIDS prevention interventions in young people. The interventions have to be synthesized in ways that help in decision-making by the policy-makers and planners of the various preventive programs. They should get help from research in allocating resources in different epidemics setting. The implementation of decisions that are taken to prevent the transmission is made difficult by the need for evidence from multiple interventions. Young people between the ages between 14 and 24 are at higher risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, and the majority of new reported cases are among the youth. Therefore, most prevention programs should target where they are available such as schools and churches. Research shows that the majority of the people who are living with these diseases contracted when they were young. Platforms such as health services, schools, and social media should be used as avenues of educating young people on the dangers of the disease and how to prevent contraction. The effectiveness of the interventions may be incomplete. They have positive impacts on this health issue. The challenges that occur in prevention interventions among the youth is support that they need. This happens where schools, where the young people spend most of their time, have not adequate support programs for those living with STDs. Adolescents are sexually more active, leading to the spread of HIV/AIDS among them rapidly, and therefore, prevention of the spread should be prioritized. 8 References Barr, E., Zipperer, K., Calhoun, S., Moore, M., & Parisi, T. (2018). Reducing HIV/STD Rates and Births to Teens: A Collaborative and Ongoing Program. Journal of Adolescent Health, 62(2), S22. Tolou-Shams, M., Harrison, A., Conrad, S. M., Johnson, S., & Brown, L. K. (2017). Challenges to conducting adolescent HIV prevention services research with courtinvolved youth. Children and Youth Services Review, 83, 201-208. Widman, L., Golin, C. E., Noar, S. M., Massey, J., & Prinstein, M. J. (2016). ProjectHeartforGirls. com: Development of a web-based HIV/STD prevention program for adolescent girls emphasizing sexual communication skills. AIDS Education and Prevention, 28(5), 365-377. …
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