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Obesity represents a common but preventable cause of morbidity and severe medical complications. Despite efforts to curb the issue, globally, the annual cases of obesity continue to rise.

Obesity represents a common but preventable cause of morbidity and severe medical complications. Despite efforts to curb the issue, globally, the annual cases of obesity continue to rise.

Use of American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations to Promote Healthy Behaviors

 

Student Name

Course Number & Name

Etc. Per APA title page

 

Literature Synthesis

 

Use of American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations to Promote Healthy Behaviors

Obesity represents a common but preventable cause of morbidity and severe medical complications. Despite efforts to curb the issue, globally, the annual cases of obesity continue to rise. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, negatively affecting people’s health status (Carbone et al., 2022). Internal clinical reports at the practicum site reveal a significant increase in obese patients. Physical activity is advised to minimize the risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. According to the literature, it is common to find patients with a sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity. Still, wearables and smartphone apps provide new ways to improve physical activity habits (Gal et al., 2018). The easy availability of sophisticated activity trackers such as Fitbit offers a unique opportunity to enhance the efficacy of computer-tailored interventions. These advanced activity trackers can monitor steps, heart rate, energy expenditure, sleep, sedentary behavior, and physical activity intensity (Vandelanotte et al., 2018). The evidence-based intervention for the current project is the American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations (Bray et al., 2019). These evidence-based recommendations focus on knowing how many calories an individual should be eating and drinking to reduce body weight and aiming for at least 150 minutes of moderate physical activity, or 75 minutes of vigorous physical exercise, or an equivalent combination of both, each week (Arnett et al., 2019).

PICOT

In overweight adult patients in a primary care clinic, what is the impact of implementing the American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle recommendations, compared to current practice, on body weight in 8-10 weeks?

Search Methodology

The literature search focused on key concepts related to obesity complications, diet, lifestyle changes, physical activity intervention using Fitbit activity trackers, and physical activity benefice for patients. These major topic areas were obesity self-management, obesity management and care in primary care, and the standards of care for obesity.

Keywords and Search Terms

Simple Terms:

Obesity care

Obesity complications

Lifestyle recommendations

Obesity management

Physical activity intervention using Fitbit activity trackers

Boolean Terms:

Obesity AND Diet and Lifestyle recommendations

Obesity care management AND Obesity complications

Body weight reduction AND Diet and Lifestyle recommendations

Physical activity intervention using Fitbit activity trackers AND obesity self-management

Diet and Lifestyle recommendations AND primary care

Methodology of Search

Research studies done during the previous 5-6 years were included in the search criteria. Chamberlain Library, PubMed, Google Scholar, and CINHAL were among the databases searched. Initial searches yielded over 25000 articles, of which 47 were chosen and examined because they fit the project’s theme and supplied data to support the practice problem. The first 47 papers were filtered down to a group of 12 studies that were the most relevant to the specific PICOT query. These 12 papers were studied in further detail and then appraised using the Johns Hopkins Evidence Appraisal table.

Resources Discovered

Twelve papers were chosen for their relation to the areas listed by the PICOT question. All articles selected were highly scored based on the search keywords and Boolean keyword searches. Multiple database searches were conducted using similar, if not identical, search phrases, and the final list was amalgamated.

Review of the Literature (this is the main section)

 

Obesity and Its Impact on patient health (Subheading 1) (Make this first subheading a logical pick that you will build upon with the next subheadings; i.e., if several research teams found common issues that drive the current problem in particular, start with that subheading topic; be sure for each section and for each sentence, that you cite multiple ref.s appropriately in parentheses at the end; using this style improves flow rather than trying to begin all your sentences with authors’ names).

Based on a review of the literature, several studies revealed that obesity is a prevalent yet avoidable contributor to morbidity and serious chronic diseases.” Then go on to discuss and summarize all the similar results and outcomes from these studies in successive sentences, and then also any unique results from perhaps just 1 or 2 studies. [This is what you would call a “Problem” subheading]

Potential Benefits of Healthy Diet and Lifestyle Modifications (Subheading 2) (Introduce the next logical subtopic here):

Start with another very broad, “juicy” topic sentence based on similar results or commonalities from multiple studies; Next example brainstorm: Healthy diet and lifestyle modifications promote healthy behaviors and contribute to reducing obesity, and patients who loosed weight have been reported to feel more healthy.” Then go on to discuss and summarize all the similar results from this group of studies with similar results in successive sentences, and then also any unique results from perhaps just 1-2 studies. [Solution *(to the problem obesity) subheading]

 

Parents of T1D Students Need Support Too (Subheading 3) (Introduce the next logical subtopic here):

Start with another very broad, “juicy” topic sentence based on similar results or commonalities from multiple studies; Next example brainstorm: “In addition to the need to support teens who have been diagnosed with TID and who are feeling excluded and unsure about self-management of their diabetes, several studies have revealed that parents of children with TID also need to be heard and supported in regard to learning how to support their teen in self-managing their TID at school.” Then go on to discuss and summarize all the similar results from this group of studies in successive sentences, and then also any unique results from perhaps just 1-2 studies. [Solution subheading]

Anywhere from 2 – 4 subheadings is likely to suffice for your paper, depending on the evidence you have found 🙂

Then —

Conclusions

Wrap up your findings in broad strokes and finish with mentioning the intervention you will implement to address these evidence-based issues and concerns.

Note that this will then flow beautifully into your next paper, which is your Week 5 Assignment:

Evidence-Based Intervention

Ok, to be continued for your next paper — I hope this outline is helpful!

 

 

References

Bray, G. A., & Ryan, D. H. (2021). Evidence-based weight-loss interventions: Individualized treatment options to maximize patient outcomes. Diabetes, obesity & metabolism, 23 Suppl 1, 50–62. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.14200Links to an external site.

 

Brickwood, K. J., Watson, G., O’Brien, J., & Williams, A. D. (2019). Consumer-Based Wearable Activity Trackers Increase Physical Activity Participation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 7(4), e11819. https://doi.org/10.2196/11819Links to an external site.

 

Følling, I. S., Oldervoll, L. M., Hilmarsen, C., & Ersfjord, E. (2021). A qualitative study explores the use of activity monitors for patients with obesity during weight-loss treatment. BMC sports science, medicine & rehabilitation, 13(1), 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-021-00253-9Links to an external site.

 

Obesity. (2021, June 9). WHO | World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/facts-in-pictures/detail/6-facts-on-obesityLinks to an external site.

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