Research that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative data is termed “mixed method”.
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Discussion: Synergistic use of Data
Research that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative data is termed “mixed method”. Using a mixed method research methodology gives a more complete and synergistic use of data than collection and analysis of quantitative and qualitative data separately (AHRQ, 2013). Mixed method research methodology gives breadth and depth of understanding while offsetting the weaknesses innate to using quantitative or qualitative approaches individually. “Triangulation” a term coined in the 1970’s to describe mixed methodology, “was identified as a combination of methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon to decrease the bias inherent in using one particular method” (Doorenbos, 2014).
There are various mixed method designs and selection of appropriate design is important prior to implementation of research. When using the convergent design, quantitative and qualitative data is collected at the same time. It is analyzed separately and compared and displayed side by side. The two types of data validate each other and form a solid basis for drawing conclusions of interventions. The explanatory sequel design involves two phases. The first being a quantitative study followed by a qualitative study that builds on the quantitative. In this way, the qualitative data gives further explanation of the quantitative data. The embedded design is a quantitative outcomes study, for example a randomized, controlled trial, in which qualitative data collection and analysis is added. Both quantitative and qualitative data are analyzed and the qualitative incorporated at the outset to aid in developing interventions. The multi-phase design, for example a community-based approach that involves the primary care providers and staff, patients, and other providers and individuals in the community in the research process. Key stakeholders participate as co-researchers in a project, providing input about their needs, ways to address them, and ways to implement changes (AHRQ, 2013).
There are both advantages and disadvantages to using a mixed method research methodology.
Compares quantitative and qualitative data to aid in understanding contradictions between quantitative and qualitative findings.
Discussion: Synergistic use of Data
Discussion: Synergistic use of Data
Reflects participants’ point of view by giving a voice to study participants and ensure that study findings are grounded in participants’ experiences.
Fosters scholarly interaction by adding breadth to multidisciplinary team research by encouraging the interaction of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods scholars.
Provides methodological flexibility and adaptability to many study designs to illuminate more information than can be obtained in quantitative research alone.
Collects rich, comprehensive data by mirroring the way individuals naturally collect information (integrating quantitative and qualitative data). For example, sports stories frequently integrate quantitative data (scores or number of errors) with qualitative data (descriptions and images of highlights) to provide a more complete story than either method would alone.
Increases the complexity of evaluations. Mixed methods studies require careful planning to describe all aspects of research such as: study sample for qualitative and quantitative portions, sequence of quantitative and qualitative portions, and plan for integrating data. Integrating quantitative and qualitative data is often challenging.
Relies on a multidisciplinary team of researchers using qualitative experts.
Requires increased resources. Mixed methods studies are labor intensive. They require greater resources and time than those needed to conduct a single method study.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Advancing Excellence in Health Care (AHRQ). (2013). Mixed methods: Integrating quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis while studying patient-centered medical home models. Retrieved from https://www.pcmh.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/attachments/MixedMethods_032513comp.pdf
Doorenbos, A. (2014). Mixed methods in nursing research: An overview and practical examples. Kango Kenkyu. The Japanese Journal of Nursing Research, 47(3), 207–217. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4287271/
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.
ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS
Discussion Questions (DQ)
Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality
Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes
I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.