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What are the top ten American values as found in the text?

What are the top ten American values as found in the text?

What are the top ten American values as found in the text?
Discussion Concept of Cultural Lag

During this second week, we will focus upon the concept of
culture and all its components. After you have read the reading assignment and
lecture for this week, please respond to all parts of the discussion by the due
date assigned:

What are the top ten American values as found in the text?
Which ones do you embrace and why? Are there any you reject, and if so, why?
What three values would you add to the list if you could? Why are the values
you would add not already in the top ten?

What are five symbols that represent America? Do they also
represent other components of culture, such as material objects or values?

Consider the concept of cultural lag. Identify two American
values that are “lagging.” What are three norms that are lagging? How does
cultural lagging relate to the Westernization that is happening in other
countries?

Remember to also respond to the posts of at least two others
in our class by the end of the week.

The difference between material culture and non-material culture is known as cultural lag. The term cultural lag refers to the notion that culture takes time to catch up with technological innovations, and the resulting social problems that are caused by this lag. In other words, cultural lag occurs whenever there is an unequal rate of change between different parts of culture causing a gap between material and non-material culture. Subsequently, cultural lag does not only apply to this idea only, but also relates to theory and explanation. It helps by identifying and explaining social problems to predict future problems in society. The term was first coined in William F. Ogburn’s 1922 work Social Change with Respect to Culture and Original Nature.

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Discussion Concept of Cultural Lag
Discussion Concept of Cultural Lag

As explained by James W. Woodward, when the material conditions change, changes are occasioned in the adaptive culture, but these changes in the adaptive culture do not synchronize exactly with the change in the material culture, this delay is the culture lag.[1] If people fail to adjust to the rapid environmental and technological changes it will cause a lag or a gap between the cultures. This resonates with ideas of technological determinism, which means that technology determines the development of its cultural values and social structure. That is, it can presuppose that technology has independent effects on society at large. However it does not necessarily assign causality to technology. Rather cultural lag focuses examination on the period of adjustment to new technologies. According to sociologists William F. Ogburn, cultural lag is a common societal phenomenon due to the tendency of material culture to evolve and change rapidly and voluminously while non-material culture tends to resist change and remain fixed for a far longer period of time.[2] This is due to the fact that ideals and values are much harder to change than physical things are. Due to the opposing nature of these two aspects of culture, adaptation of new technology becomes rather difficult. This can cause a disconnect between people and their society or culture. This distinction between material and non-material culture is also a contribution of Ogburn’s 1922 work on social change. Ogburn’s classic example of cultural lag was the period of adaptation when automobiles became faster and more efficient. It took some time for society to start building infrastructure that would tailor mainly to the new, more efficient, vehicles. This is because people are not comfortable with change and it takes them a little time to adapt. Hence, the term cultural lag.

Social Change With Respect to Nature and Original Change (1922)
Social Change with Respect to Nature and Original Change is a 1922 work by Ogburn. This work was crucial in drawing attention to issues with social changes and responses. In this work he first coined the term ‘cultural lag’ to describe a lag between material and non-material cultures. Ogburn states that there is a gap between traditional cultural values and the technical realities in the world.[2] This work was innovative at the time of its release and brought light to the issues of ‘cultural lag’ and the possible solutions that could fix these issues. This was not the first time these issues have been looked at, but this is the first time that real solutions were presented. Ogburn’s theory was not widely accepted at first due to people having different interpretations of the work. In the book he also details the four factors of technical development, which are: invention, accumulation, diffusion, and adjustment. In the work he suggests that primary engine of change and progress is technology, but that it is tempered by social responses. The book had mixed a mixed response due to the fact that many interpreted his findings in many different ways.

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